Short Watershed Courses

Short Watershed Courses

University of British Columbia

Integrated Watershed Management

CD-ROM Course

"Integrated Watershed Management: A Hyper-Media CD-ROM" was developed for use with the University of British Columbia graduate level Internet course, the core course mentioned in the UBC Watershed Certificate Program above. Issues relating to urban, rural, agricultural, forestry, groundwater, and stream water are treated in an interdisciplinary manner. Basic theory is presented, specific land use and watershed issues are integrated, and numerous case studies are described. The CD is reportedly ideal for practicing professionals, graduate students, resource managers and planners and as a source book for watershed partnerships. Containing more than 700 computer frames, 400 images, numerous graphics, text and over 400 searchable references, the CD costs $100 (Canadian).

Contact: Institute for Resources and Environment, 2206 E. Mall, Univ. of British Columbia, 5997 Inonia Dr., Vancouver BC V6T1Z1. Phone (604) 822-1450; fax (604) 822-1499. Web:

The California Watershed Academy

Teaching Resource Professionals

About Watershed Processes

Pete Cafferata, Forest Hydrologist

Calif. Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF)

Jim Steele, Biologist

Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game (CDFG)

The increase in the number and complexity of the California's state forest practices rules in the last ten years has been dramatic. Hundreds of changes, additions and many new concepts have added to the complexity of designing, approving and conducting a timber harvest operation. Pushing this increase is the Endangered Species Act (ESA) protection extended to the northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet, red legged frog, coho salmon and steelhead trout, and controversy over old growth forest logging. A forester today is expected to know more and have a technical background far greater than expected a few years ago. Often, natural resource protection concepts embedded in a rule are not understood by either the forester, decision maker or the public. A way of advancing new concepts and pragmatic methods was needed.

Five versions of the "Watershed Academy" have been presented to about 200 resource professionals over the past four years. Primary goals have been to provide up-to-date information on key processes affecting aquatic habitats, and to improve students' hydrologic IQ and their analysis and risk assessment skills. Resource professionals completing the academy are trained to understand the basics of natural resource protection law theory, fluvial-geomorphological processes, determine current watershed condition, evaluate whether proposed practices will adversely impact aquatic resources, and develop appropriate mitigation measures to both avoid or minimize additional impacts and accelerate recovery from past practices.

The first three watershed academy sessions were State interagency efforts while the last two were presented by University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE). Mr. Gary Stacey, CDFG, was the lead person for the interagency efforts managed by Jim Steele and Dr. Richard Harris, UCCE, led the more recent academies. The first sessions using some paid instructors were funded jointly by CDFG and CDF augmented by voluntary instructors from several agencies. The latter sessions with mostly paid instructors were funded by a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and some staff support from CDFG.

The curriculum for the Watershed Academy has been modified for each session based on participant feedback and decisions made by lead persons for each academy session. The lecture portion of the first academy covered the broadest range of topics: fish biology/life history, aquatic amphibian biology/life history, benthic macro-invertebrates, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, geology, soils, watershed processes, risk assessment for biological and physical parameters, problem synthesis, monitoring, data management and natural resource law. The field portion covered road problem recognition, field assessment techniques for hillslope and instream issues, and stream parameter measurements. Topics covered in the second academy included: natural resource law, fish biology, hydrology, geology, fluvial geomorphology, and watershed assessment procedures. Field topics included road inventory techniques, field examples of differing fish habitat and streamside quality, and demonstrations of instream monitoring techniquesóincluding rapid bio-assessment procedures.

The more recent academies held in the fall of 1998 differed somewhat in philosophy. Rather than emphasizing background information on various watershed related topics, students were asked to study a comprehensive binder of readings to provide a basic level of understanding prior to attending the course. Presenters were primarily from universities, consulting firms and the US Forest Service, with less emphasis on lecturers from state agencies. Lecture topics included: fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, hillslope stability, fish habitat requirements, monitoring, and management issues related to roads and crossings, water quality, and riparian zones. Field exercises stressed hillslope stability assessments, road inventory techniques, and assessing off-site impacts of timber operations.

General impressions from the various academy sessions include the following points: 1) readers and/or binders with large numbers of watershed related papers are taken home for reference, but usually not studied before or during the session itself (however this information was valuable as reference for future timber harvesting plans), 2) the most successful learning experiences take place in the field where practical discussions occur, 3) it is difficult for all the students in a given class to be brought up to a minimum level of understanding for all the background disciplines related to watershed processes (both physical and biological), 4) lecture material should cover half day segments, with the remainder of the day spent in the field illustrating points covered in lecture, 5) no more than one-week should be spent on the academy because of other time commitments for students, and 6) all material presented should be as practically oriented as possible, with specific examples provided to illustrate points covered in lectures. Material presented by Dr. Bill Weaver of Pacific Watershed Associates on issues related to roads, landings, and watercourse crossings has often been cited as the most important information received by the students in each session.

The important concept to be advanced, through understanding watershed function, is how to conduct land management activities compatible with natural resources. Since all natural resource laws are similar in their intent but differ in decision process, having the ability to focus on desired outcomes can streamline a knowledge based permit process, and lower government and private sector costs. Water codes, endangered species protection, and public process can all be included in the same permitting effort if there is confidence in the project's outcome. The Watershed Academy is part of a larger package which attempts to achieve this confidence, including the watershed process courses for professionals and baseline watershed analysis, database consolidation, field studies of watershed principles, and effectiveness monitoring programs.

It is unclear at this time how future offerings of the watershed academy will be presented. Clearly, there is a need for this type of information as most of the North Coast watersheds are listed as impaired water bodies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and require development of Total Maximum Daily Load allocations (TMDLs). Additionally, state and federal listings of threatened and endangered species that depend on properly functioning aquatic habitats make this type of training very important. Eventually, CDF would like to have all of its Forest Practice staff participate in the academy. Many private RPFs have also expressed an interest in future sessions. Options will be discussed by state and federal agency managers in 1999.

Contact: Pete Cafferata at (916) 653-9455 or Jim Steele at (916) 653-6194.

The Council of State Governments

Working at a Watershed Level (Interagency Course)

Summary: Oneweek course covering all facets of watershed work, including stream ecology, system dynamics, assessment and analysis, planning methodologies, restoration/management techniques, public involvement strategies and outreach program development.

The Council of State Governments Center for Environment and Safety and other regional organizations are now offering a new watershed training curriculum. Working at a Watershed Level was developed by a consortium of federal agencies, state/local groups and private organizations to improve crossagency watershed training. The course is designed as an introductory level basic training program for agency personnel newly assigned to watershed teams, veteran watershed managers in need of a refresher course and members of citizens groups interested in a cooperative approach to watershed issues.

The Interagency Watershed Training Cooperative, composed of representatives from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Forest Service, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, provided leadership for developing the course outline. The Council of State Governments, International City/ County Management Association, Ecological Society of America and other partners assisted with final curriculum design and content.

Working at a Watershed Level covers the principles of watershed ecology, system dynamics, assessment and analysis, planning methodologies, restoration/management techniques, public involvement strategies and outreach program development. The course provides a basic but very broad foundation for considering both ecological and socioeconomic issues in watershed work across a wide range of public and private organizations. One of the motivating forces for developing the course was the need for a more cooperative, coordinated approach to watershed management and a common orientation to the science and societal issues involved.

While it is recognized that state and federal agencies will continue to have unique needs and somewhat discrete processes for watershed planning, management and restoration, it is hoped that Working at a Watershed Level will help to develop a broad, common framework capable of accommodating the disparate interests that may be involved. Public agencies and private interests can only benefit by working together within a watershed, though each may have slightly different approaches and requirements. Ideally, agencies and other stakeholders will be able to use Working at a Watershed Level to identify areas where multiagency interdisciplinary teams can work together on management issues while retaining the ability to satisfy organizational, statutory or regulatory needs.

An outline of the course can be found at the U.S. EPA's Watershed Academy web site at

1999 Course Schedule

June in the San Joaquin River Basin in California (tentative).

Early September, 1999 in Lafayette, Indiana (tentative).

Late September, 1999 in New England (tentative).

Contact: Barry Tonning, Environmental Policy Analyst, The Council of State Governments, P.O. Box 11910, Lexington, KY 405781910; (606) 244-8228; fax: (606) 244-8239. E-mail: . For updates on the training schedules:

The "Working at a Watershed Level" Course

A Student Review

by William Zigler

CSU Fresno Senior in Geography

I had the opportunity to attend the January 11-15, 1999 session of the Working at a Watershed Level training course held in Chico, California. Working for the Sequoia National Forest as a trainee in hydrology with a background in geography, I had hoped to gain enough foundational information to get me started "out in the field". The course exceeded my expectations, progressing systematically from structural stream elements to geomorphology to public outreach and education strategies. It was a great experience! Because of the course's potential benefit, I would like to provide a synopsis.

Working at a Watershed Level is a watershed management training course conducted on the California State University Chico campus, through which flows Big Chico Creek. This course received much popular support in Northern and Central California, drawing many from local, state and federal agencies as well as from consulting firms, local watershed conservancies, irrigation districts, and agriculture. Not all attendees were local: some came from the distant points of West Virginia, Vermont, and Vancouver, British Columbia. In fact, the course was so popular that organizers were forced to limit seating to just over 100 while maintaining a waiting list of about 40. (Organizers are considering providing another training session later this year for those who were unable to attend.) The interest in the course reflects an increased awareness of the importance of watersheds today, especially with a growing population and its requisite demands on the environment.

The course was comprised of classroom training sessions, group discussions, field trips, and two evening social gatherings. During a dinner sponsored by The Nature Conservancy, the speaker, Donald Outen of the Baltimore County, Maryland Dept. of Environmental Protection and Resource Management, gave an in-depth presentation on Baltimore County's Integrated Watershed Management Program. He addressed federal nonpoint source pollution control mandates, State initiatives for restoration of Chesapeake Bay, and local priorities for cooperative water quality projects. Mr. Outen was a knowledgeable speaker who demonstrated effective methods of managing an important watershed surrounding a growing urban center.

Other speakers involved with the course were equally credible. They represented a distinguished and diverse group from academia (CSU Chico, Univ. of Montana, Univ. of Washington, UC Berkeley, and Shasta Community College), state and federal agencies (USFWS, Council of State Governments), private industry (Tetra Tech, Inc.), and conservation groups (Center for Natural Lands Management, Tuolumne River Preservation Trust, Mill Creek Watershed, and Stanislaus River Project). The curriculum was effectively organized, progressing logically with each new theme building upon the last. The curriculum provided something for everyone, focusing on the many aspects of watershed management.

While the classroom sessions were informative, I especially enjoyed our training outside the classroom where we observed watershed management practices in action (with varying degrees of effectiveness). Two afternoons were dedicated to field trips to Butte, Big Chico, and Sycamore Creeks. Professors Matt Kondolf, Paul Maslin, and Morgan Hannaford led groups through a watershed assessment on Butte Creek. Butte Creek was an interesting study in the instream effects of flood control measures. The flood control channel was hastily excavated after a major flood event to divert high flows of water downstream during future flood events. The channel was effective as diverting flood waters away from the narrow main channel; however, it created a problem of sediment deposition at the point bar of the main channel, effectively closing the main channel after a flood event. Closing the main channel posed several problems, such as increased stream velocity, altered erosion patterns, and the inability to provide water at the irrigation diversion dam for agriculture. Currently, the main channel has been reopened but repeated manual removal of sediment at the point bar is required to maintain the main channel.

A different field trip took us to a flood control diversion on Big Chico Creek and the flood outflow area on Sycamore Creek. A similar approach to the Butte Creek flood control diversion was used on Big Chico Creekwith similar results. Point bar sedimentation is a problem on Big Chico Creek while Sycamore Creek has experienced significant streambed degradation. The accumulation of sedimentation on Big Chico Creek is manageable, but the control of erosion along Sycamore Creek is less certain. Both field trips provided excellent examples of good intentions (the protection of property from flood impacts) gone bad. When flood control efforts are undertaken without proper scientific research, the results can be more devastating that the flood event itself.

In summary, Working at a Watershed Level was an excellent experience for a novice like myself. I now have a better feel for how the many subsystems within a watershed comprise the whole, and how we are all impacted by the general health of our watersheds. I enjoyed the enthusiasm and professionalism displayed by our host of speakers and appreciate the material produced by those who put their energy and talent into developing the course. I especially valued the opportunity to view first-hand the effects of inappropriate flood control measures. I would heartily recommend this course to anyone desiring a deeper appreciation and understanding of watersheds.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watershed Academy

Within EPA's Office of Wetland, Oceans and Watersheds (OWOW) is the Watershed Academy. The Academy offers several of its own training courses supporting watershed approaches and publicizes watershed courses sponsored by others. In addition, EPA's Office of Water sponsors its own courses that are related to watershed management. The Academy courses are not offered every year and they are apparently not always co-taught or co-sponsored through a university or college. Those that are generally available are listed below:

  • Watersheds 101: Applied Watershed Management
  • Watersheds 102: Statewide Approach to Watershed Management
  • Watersheds 103: TMDL Training for State Practitioners
  • Watersheds 104: Executive Overview of the Watershed Approach
  • Watersheds 105: Watershed Management Tools Primer
  • Watersheds 106: Watershed Partnership Seminar
  • Watersheds 107: Using Internet Resources

Watershed Academy 2000 Distance Learning

As part of its Watershed Academy, EPA is developing Academy 2000 Distance Learning, using the Internet as a classroom. Academy 2000 consists of training modules on watershed science, effective communications, and organizational management and development. Modules include:

  • Principles of Watershed Management
  • Watershed Restoration
  • Economics of Sustainability
  • Monitoring Consortiums
  • Watershed Modeling
  • Executive Overview of the Watershed Approach

The website contains 13 modules, with at least seven more planned. Running time for each module is about two hours. The website is

Inventory of Watershed Training Courses

EPA's Watershed Academy has recently produced an Inventory of Watershed Training Courses, updating its earlier document titled "Watershed Academy Catalogue of Watershed Training Opportunities" (May 1997). Listed as a key action in the Clean Water Action Plan, the inventory provides information on available watershed-related training courses sponsored by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The target audience includes federal, state, and local agency staff; tribes, and watershed groups. EPA took the lead in updating this inventory, while working with the Interagency Watershed Training Cooperative, Natural Resources Training Council, EPA's Office of Water Watershed Training Work Group, and others.

Included courses focus on protecting or restoring watersheds (or aquifers), cover important tools used in watershed protection, or address one aspect of the watershed management cycle (e.g., planning, implementation, evaluation). In addition to agency courses, University training courses are also listed. Check the website for its availability:


University of California at Davis

Center for Integrated Watershed Science and Management

In the Spring of 1998, UC Davis established a center that highlights and expands the campus role in watershed-related research, teaching, and outreach. Under the auspices of the John Muir Institute for the Environment and with guidance from the Commission on the Environment, the new Center for Integrated Watershed Science and Management has a threefold mission:

· develop, coordinate and track current and future campus efforts at integrated watershed study, with an emphasis on expanding the research support base and promoting the leadership role of the campus in watershed issues;

· support existing and future graduate and undergraduate programs that offer integrative watershed education;

· provide knowledge-based services and support to watershed stakeholders and decision-makers and promote the development of university/agency/foundation partnerships in watershed research.

A broad array of public and private institutions have noted that the next frontier in watershed study lies in the integration between disciplines. Authors have noted that failed attempts to manage multiple use in watersheds stem from traditional single agency, single issue approaches. This problem is exacerbated by academic and government institutions who continue to promote hierarchical, discipline-specific research programs in watershed. To date, no academic program has been singled out as successfully promoting such integration and taking a leadership role in this emerging field.

The University of California, Davis, with its diverse intellectual and technical resources, its numerous watershed-related research and teaching programs, its extensive public outreach program, and its long history of collaboration with federal, state and local watershed agencies, believes that it is ideally suited to become a national and international leader in integrated watershed studies.

The Center is intended to be an administrative and intellectual link between the numerous watershed-related programs currently operating on the UC Davis campus as well as watershed decision-makers and stakeholders. The mission of the Center is guided by a Steering Committee, made up of directors or heads of campus programs, and an Advisory Board, composed of watershed experts outside of the UC system. A goal of the Center will be to become self-sustaining within three years through recharge for knowledge-based services, indirect cost return monies, and agency or foundation support.

New faculty positions are being created and filled to expand watershed education and research at UCD. For example, an Assistant Professor in Watershed Hydrology was recently added to the Hydrology Program to develop a quantitative field-experimental research program in Watershed Hydrology. The appointee is expected to lead a team-taught field course in hydrology, an undergraduate course in watershed hydrology, and a graduate level course in experimental watershed hydrology.

The measure of success of the education and teaching mission of the program will be the changes in the curriculum of existing programs on campus, the development of new programs, and the number of students who attend courses associated with the center. An additional measure will be the number of student internships and fellowships sponsored through the center.

Contact: Dr. Jeff Mount, Dept. of Geology, UC Davis, E-mail:

Also: Hydrology Program, Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources,

University of Idaho

Eco-hydraulics Research Group

More recent approaches to river management are multi-objective, balancing beneficial uses for power generation, water supply and agriculture with the protection and enhancement of the riverine habitat, water quality, recreational use and aesthetics. These restoration and enhancement approaches place an emphasis on allowing the physical processes to drive the ecological healing by natural evolution, rather than an instantaneous engineering fix. Implementing this restoration philosophy, developing management plans, simulating the hydrological or ecological responses and untangling the complexities of aquatic systems require an interdisciplinary approach, which crosses the boundaries of science and engineering programs. The term "Eco-hydraulics" comes from the new forum created in 1996 by the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR).

To address the specific problems of the Pacific Northwest, the University of Idaho's Eco-hydraulics Research Group comprises faculty from the Departments of Fish and Wildlife Biology, Geography, and the College of Engineering. Faculty expertise includes decision theory, GIS, stream ecology, fisheries biology, biological and microbiological processes, hydrology, hydraulic engineering, sediment transport, geomorphology, computer simulations and computational hydraulics. Collaboration occurs with state and federal agencies, the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and international researchers.

Graduate student opportunities exist leading to M.S., M.Engr. or Ph.D. degrees in Civil Engineering, Fish and Wildlife Resources, or Geography. Studies can be undertaken at the Moscow or Boise Campus of the U-I. The Eco-hydraulics laboratory also offers a range of residential short courses for practicing engineers, scientists and planners involved in ecological restoration and natural resource management.

Contact: Eco-hydraulics Research Group, University of Idaho, 800 Park Blvd., Suite 200, Boise ID 83712. (208) 387-1745; Fax (208) 387-1246. Website at:

Pennsylvania State University

Center for Watershed Stewardship

The Center for Watershed Stewardship is an initiative begun in 1998 that is co-led by the Dept. of Landscape Architecture and School of Forest Resources and funded by a major grant from the Heinz Endowments. Its purpose is "to create the next generation of watershed professionals by combining interdisciplinary capabilities with strong disciplinary bases in a community-oriented context."

Inaugural programs include a graduate option in watershed stewardship and a continuing education program of short courses, seminars, and conferences for natural and water resources professionals and community leaders. Topics to be offered by the Continuing Education and Outreach Program will be: stream corridor management and restoration, community land use planning and design, GIS applications for watershed planning and management, non-profit organizational development and fiscal administration, legal and institutional aspects, water quality management for rural and urban watersheds, natural processes in watersheds, wetland restoration and design, and fisheries restoration and enhancement.

Specific courses will be designed to accommodate a diverse range of participants including landscape architects, community planners, watershed association and land trust staff, community volunteers and activists, natural resource managers, regulatory agency personnel, and environmental consultants, designers, and engineers. Other offerings are being developed through the Center or being co-hosted with other agencies, educational institutions, and departments at Penn State.

Contact: Kerry Wedel, Director, Center for Watershed Stewardship, The Pennsylvania State University, Room 8B, Ferguson Bldg., University Park, PA 16802-4302; (814) 865-8911, fax (814) 865-3725. E-mail:

Website: http://www/

Internet Sites for the Professional Watershed Job Market

American Water Resources Association ">

Universities Council on Water Resources


Portland State University

Community Watershed Stewardship Program

By Kristin Schaeffer, Graduate Assistant for CWSP

The Community Watershed Stewardship Program (CWSP) is a partnership between Portland State University (PSU) and the City of Portland's Bureau of Environmental Services (BES) in order to facilitate research and public outreach cultivating stewardship ideology. Our mission is to serve as a catalyst for community ownership of watershed health.

Program goals are to:

  • Raise awareness and open avenues for actions to improve watershed health.
  • Foster an increased sense of stewardship and promote community initiated projects to improve water quality and habitat in the watersheds of Portland.
  • Promote community access to communication systems, training and education about watershed issues and activities.
  • Foster partnerships between schools, businesses, interest groups, neighborhood associations, government agencies and individuals in watershed activities.
  • Promote citizen evaluation and monitoring of watershed health and activities.
  • Strive to be reflective of a diverse community, their values and evaluation.

Objectives include:

  • Information dissemination and awareness building
  • Education and training
  • Restoration and enhancement
  • Evaluation of the health of watersheds

The role PSU takes in the Stewardship Program is multifaceted. We have two faculty members who are very involved in the management of our program and coordinate graduate assistant (GA) recruitment each year. As well, they facilitate other professor involvement in the Stewardship Program by offering access to our program resources. Since the program works intensively with community efforts, there are watershed research materials and connections we have made with the public. This collective data is then shared with professors who can use the resources to help base their curriculum on.

In the past three years, PSU has instituted a Capstone Class requirement for undergraduate seniors. These classes are intended to get the students involved in community outreach work and offer a number of different classes for specific fields, such as watershed education and awareness. We have found that our program has been getting more involved as a resource for Capstone students and helping to energize stewardship efforts through curriculum development.

Currently, our program funds four graduate assistants who work on average 15 hours a week. Three of the GAs focus on watershed stewardship efforts for a specific watershed, and one GA focuses on the administrative needs of the program and helps to facilitate the Stewardship MiniGrants Program. The GAs come from a variety of backgrounds and departments at PSU, which can change every one to two years. For example, we recruited Joe Blowers who is focusing on a Masters of Science in Teaching Science, Steve Gilchrist is focusing on a Ph.D in the School of Education, Kristin Schaeffer is focusing on a Masters of Public Administration emphasizing on Natural Resources Policy and Administration, and Clint Wertz is focusing on a Masters of Urban Studies and Planning.

At this time, a degree program does not exist in any of the schools or programs at PSU. For the past three years, the Stewardship Program has developed a Watershed 101 course available to communities in which they receive a certificate upon completion. In the past it was a course that was only offered at PSU, but some time was spent last year in developing it for Neighborhood Associations, Watershed Councils and other interested community groups who will have access to the course beyond the campus. We are still in the process of refining this educational component.

For more information, please contact us at phone (503) 8235625, or ''

Oregon State University Extension Service

Watershed Stewardship Guide

OSU Extension's 1998 publication, Watershed Stewardship: A Learning Guide, is intended to help residents and volunteers be good stewards of their watershed. The driving force for the development of this guide was the 1995-97 Oregon Coastal Salmon Restoration Initiative which focused primarily on coho salmon. However, the contents are relevant to all salmonids west of the Cascades. Contained within a two-inch thick 3-ring binder, the material is organized into 3 "user-friendly" sections: IWorking Together to Create Successful Groups, IIUnderstanding and Enhancing Ecosystems, IIIConnecting Resource Management to Watershed Ecosystems.

Copies can be ordered for $32.00 per copy of OSU Extension publication EM 8714 from: Publications Orders, Extension & Station Communications, Oregon State University, 422 Kerr Administration, Corvallis OR 97332-2119. Fax: (541) 737-0817. Discounts are offered on orders of 100 or more copies. Call (541) 737-2513 for price quotes. Also contact them for the latest catalog of publications, software, and videotape programs.

Some other watershed-related materials from Extension include:

  • Healthy Watersheds videotape (20 min.) , VTP 019, $20.00
  • We All Live Downstream videotape (29 min.) , VTP 021, $30.00
  • The Miracle at Bridge Creek Case Study videotape (30 min.), VTP 013, $30.00
  • Community Ventures: Interest-Based Problem Solving Process and Techniques, WREP 134, $1.50
  • Maintaining Woodland Roads, EC 1139, $1.25
  • Water Quality and Our Forests: Western Oregon Research videotape, VTP 014, $25.